Poland enacts law for the EU's supposedly minimal regulation of Video on Demand
|19th November 2012
See article from
The Polish president has given his written approval to proposed amendments to the country's Law on Radio and Television Broadcasting related to VOD services.
According to the Ministry of Administration and Digitisation (MAC), this will update
Polish law with the requirements of the EU Audiovisual Directive.
The amendments follow the principal of minimal regulation and include a requirement for at least 20% of VOD content to be of European, including Polish, origin.
yet to be seen if the 'minimal regulations' will be used to suffocate Poland's VOD industry just like ATVOD have done in the UK.
Poland adopts European censorship laws applying to VOD
See article from
The Polish parliament has adopted an amendment to the country's Law on Radio and Television Broadcasting related to VOD services. It has now been passed to the Senate.
According to the Ministry of Administration and Digitisation (MAC), it
implements the principle of minimal regulation conforming to the requirements of the EU Audiovisual Directive.
In practice, the amendment envisages VOD services being in part covered by the same rules previously applicable only to TV
broadcasting. However, they will also be widened to include bans on tobacco and alcohol advertising, as well as product placement.
There will also be protection of minors and a requirement for 20% of the content of VOD services to be of European
ASA rejects whinges about assassin nuns trailer for Hitman Absolution
|26th September 2012
See article from
See trailer from
An ad for the computer game Hitman: Absolution , viewed on the YouTube channel and Facebook pages for the Hitman game series:
a. The ad on YouTube was titled Hitman Absolution - Attack of the Saints Trailer [North
America] . Text at the beginning of the ad stated MAY CONTAIN CONTENT INAPPROPRIATE FOR CHILDREN Visit www.esrb.org for rating information . The CGI animated ad began in a motel room, where a man was seen removing his shirt, washing blood from
his hands, cleaning a wound on his shoulder and getting dressed again. That was intercut with scenes of a group of nuns walking, a close-up of their high-heeled boots, and footage of them producing weapons. They removed their robes to reveal they were
wearing skin-tight PVC outfits. Some were wearing stockings and suspenders or ripped tights. The man was seen looking towards the spy-hole on the motel room door. The women stopped in front of the motel and one of them fired a missile at the building.
That was followed by several seconds of close-ups of firearms, intercut with the women pointing their weapons in different directions. The man appeared behind two of the women in succession and attacked them, garrotting one and punching the other in the
head whilst holding his other hand over her mouth. This was followed by close-ups of him grabbing a third woman over her mouth and nose, and pointing a gun out towards the viewer. He then shot two women in the chest; blood was shown flying from their
wounds. Another woman engaged him in a fistfight and knocked him to the ground. A shot, from the man's perspective, showed a woman standing over him pointing a machine gun at him. He knocked her over and punched her in the head. A woman appeared behind
him and attempted to garrotte him with her rosary beads. He headbutted her in the nose, breaking it, and they continued to fight. He then grabbed the woman with the broken nose and used her as a shield as one of the other women, who was lying on the
ground, shot at the man. He picked up a gun from the floor and fired twice. A close-up of the woman's face showed she was lying on the ground; she appeared to be dead. The man knelt down and closed her eyes. He stood up, against the background of the
motel on fire. Text appeared which stated HITMAN ABSOLUTION , followed by a shot of the man putting weapons in the boot of a car and driving away. Further text stated THE ORIGINAL ASSASSIN PREORDER NOW AND PLAY THE SNIPER CHALLENGE TODAY
b. The same ad was posted on the Hitman Facebook page, titled Attack Of The Saints Trailer The Saints have arrived! Watch the Hitman: Absolution trailer now!.
The ASA received two complaints
claiming that theads glamourised and condoned violence, particularly towards women, through the themes of graphic violence and the sexually provocative clothing worn by the female characters.
Both complainants challenged whether ad (a) was offensive;
one complainant challenged whether ad (a) was distressing; and
one complainant challenged whether ad (b) was
One complainant also challenged whether ad (a) was socially irresponsible, because it glamourised and condoned violence, particularly towards women, when it was for a product which would appeal to teenage boys.
Square Enix (SE) said there was also a European version of the trailer, which was the same except that it gave the PEGI rating of the game at the start rather than the North American ESRB rating. The game was rated 18 in both
jurisdictions, and both trailers included those ratings prominently at the start. They said the trailers reflected the content of the game, which would have been banned or cut if it had any content which was considered offensive or harmful. They said the
trailer was only intended to be viewed by adults of 18 or over; it was not aimed or targeted at teenage boys. They said they had taken steps to ensure that it would not be viewed by those under 18.
SE said the trailer was released
on their YouTube channel, which had an 18-rated age gate. Users could therefore only access the trailer by creating an account with YouTube and inputting their date of birth and other personal details.
With regard to the ad
appearing on Facebook, SE said that, on the release date of the European trailer, it had only been accessible to Facebook users who followed links to YouTube, and therefore the YouTube age gate applied. They had subsequently discovered, however, that the
North American trailer had then been posted on their Facebook page without an age restriction on users in Europe. They explained that was a technical error which had now been rectified; the trailer on Facebook could now only be accessed by adults who
were 18 or over.
ASA Assessment: Complaints not upheld
1., 2. & 3. Not upheld
The ASA acknowledged the ad included scenes of graphic violence in which a man fought a group of
women wearing sexually provocative clothing. We acknowledged some viewers might find the women's clothing gratuitous and offensive, and the idea of a man fighting women distressing and offensive. However, we noted the ad was age-restricted, and accessed
via a Facebook page and YouTube channel which were specifically about the Hitman game. We considered it was likely that internet users who viewed the ads would therefore have specifically sought out material relating to the game and would be familiar
with its premise and the types of characters and imagery which featured in the ad. We also considered that, in addition to the age-restrictions, the 18 rating at the beginning of the ad clearly signposted to viewers that the content would be of a
particular type. Furthermore, we considered that, because the 'Saints' were armed and initiated the violence, it was clear, even to viewers unfamiliar with the game, that they were professional assassins who had been sent to kill Agent 47, and that the
violence on his part was neither random nor sexually motivated. We also noted that the act of closing the eyes of one of the dead women would generally be viewed as a respectful gesture. Whilst we acknowledged that some viewers might find the ad
distressing and offensive, we concluded that, because it was age-restricted and unlikely to be viewed by those unfamiliar with the game, it was unlikely to cause serious or widespread offence or distress to viewers of the Hitman Facebook page and YouTube
channel. We also considered the ad did not glamorise violence generally, or violence towards women in particular, and we concluded it was not likely to condone or encourage violence or anti-social behaviour.
On points (1) and (2),
we investigated ad (a) under CAP Code rules 4.1, 4.2 and 4.4 (Harm and offence), but did not find it in breach.
On point (3), we investigated ad (b) under CAP Code rules 4.1 and 4.4 (Harm and offence), but did not find it in
4. Not upheld
We agreed with the complainant that the product was likely to appeal to teenage boys under 18 years of age. However, we noted the ad was accessed via the advertiser's YouTube channel
and Facebook page, and that both avenues of access were age-restricted to website users who were 18 or over. We were concerned that a technical error had meant that European Facebook users had, for a time, been able to access the ad without an
age-restriction, but we noted the advertiser had taken swift action to correct the error when they became aware of it and they had not targeted the ad at those under 18 at any time. We concluded that, because we considered the ad did not glamorise or
condone violence, and the advertiser had taken steps to prevent those who were under 18 from viewing it, it was not socially irresponsible.
On point (4), we investigated ad (a) under CAP rule 1.3 (Social responsibility), but did
not find it in breach.
Murderous attacks on US sites in Libya and Egypt over a movie insulting Islam
|14th September 2012
12th September 2012. See article from
See Islam blasphemy riots now
self-fulfilling prophecy from indexoncensorship.org by James Kirchick
An Israeli filmmaker based in California went into hiding Tuesday after his movie attacking Islam's religious character Muhammad sparked angry assaults by extremist Muslims on U.S. embassies in Egypt and Libya, where one American was killed.
Speaking by phone from an undisclosed location, writer and director Sam Bacile remained defiant, saying Islam is a cancer and that he intended his film to be a provocative political statement condemning the religion.
Protesters angered over Bacile's film opened fire on and burned down the U.S. consulate in the eastern Libyan city of Benghazi, killing an American diplomat. In Egypt, protesters scaled the walls of the U.S. embassy in Cairo and replaced an
American flag with an Islamic banner.
The two-hour movie, Innocence of Muslims, cost $5 million to make and was financed with the help of more than 100 Jewish donors, said Bacile, who wrote and directed it.
The film claims Muhammad
was a fraud. An English-language 13-minute trailer on YouTube shows an amateur cast performing a dialogue of insults in the form of revelations about Muhammad.
The full film has been shown once, to a mostly empty theater in Hollywood earlier this
year, said Bacile.
Update: Uncensored by Google
13th September 2012. See article
YouTube, the video website owned by Google Inc, will not remove the film clip that has caused murderous anti-U.S. protests in Egypt and Libya, but it has blocked access to it in those countries.
U.S. Ambassador to Libya Christopher Stevens and
three other American diplomats were killed by gunmen in an attack on the U.S. Consulate in Benghazi on Tuesday.
The U.S. ambassador and three staff members were killed when gunmen fired rockets at them, an official in Benghazi told Reuters.
In a brief statement on Wednesday, Google officials rejected the notion of removing the video on grounds it did not violate YouTube's policies, but restricted viewers in Egypt and Libya from loading it due to the special circumstances in the
country. Google said:
This video - which is widely available on the Web - is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube,. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya and Egypt, we have
temporarily restricted access in both countries.
Our hearts are with the families of the people murdered in yesterday's attack in Libya.
Update: Blocked in Afghanistan
September 2012. See article from telegraph.co.uk
The Afghan government on Wednesday banned YouTube from the country to prevent people from watching the anti-Islam film, The Innocence of Muslims.
Following instructions by the ministry of information and culture, the ministry of communication
has ordered all service providers to block YouTube access, communications ministry official Aimal Marjan told AFP. He said the block had been ordered until YouTube removes this abusive film .
The Afghan presidency earlier condemned the
film as inhuman and insulting, calling for it not to be broadcast.
Update: Violence Spreads
14th September 2012. See
Emergency plans are in place to evacuate UK diplomats and their families following a second day of violence in the Middle East.
Protests over an anti-Islam film saw the US embassy in Yemen stormed by a mob numbering in the thousands.
unrest has spread to Yemen, Iran, Egypt, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Algeria, Sudan, Morocco and Tunisia.
In Tehran, groups chanting anti-US and anti-Israel slogans staged a protest outside the Swiss embassy which represents US interests in
And in Iraq, demonstrations spread from Baghdad to the second city of Basra with the leader of one Islamist militia warning the film will put all American interests in danger .
In Egypt, the Muslim Brotherhood has called for
nationwide protests today to denounce the film. Up to 70 were injured in a third day of protests yesterday at the US embassy in Cairo with some demonstrators demanding the ambassador's expulsion.
Update: Google Asked to
15th September 2012. See article
US Administration officials have asked YouTube to review a controversial video that many blame for spurring a wave of anti-American violence in the Middle East.
The administration flagged the 14-minute Innocence of Muslims video and asked
that YouTube evaluate it to determine whether it violates the site's terms of service, officials said Thursday. The video, which has been viewed by nearly 1.7 million users, depicts Muhammad as a child molester, womanizer and murderer -- and has been
decried as blasphemous and Islamophobic.
Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton sharpened her criticism of the film that led to the protests. She called the film disgusting and reprehensible -- but said that the U.S. would never stop
Americans from expressing their views, and that the movie is no excuse for violence, according to reports from the Associated Press.
YouTube declined comment on the administration request.
Update: Violence Spreads
15th September 2012. See article from
As a wave of anti-American riots erupts across the Islamic world, Muslims' U.S. flag burning protests spread to Britain.
Elsewhere British diplomats were in fear for their lives, with staff at the embassy in Khartoum, Sudan, locking themselves in
as 5,000 angry demonstrators raged and lit fires in an attack on the German embassy next door.
In London, 150 protesters marched on the US embassy chanting burn burn USA as the American flag went up in flames, soon joined by the Israeli
In violence elsewhere, the number of dead and wounded grew. In the northern Lebanese city of Tripoli police began shooting, killing one man, after a mob set fire to a Kentucky Fried Chicken franchise and an American restaurant. Another 25
were wounded in the chaos.
In Sanaa, the capital of Yemen, 2,000 protesters set off for the US embassy, only to be stopped short by national security forces firing live rounds, killing one man and leaving 15 injured.
In the Tunisian capital
Tunis, several thousand demonstrators threw stones at the US embassy and set fire to cars, before being fought off with tear gas and gunfire. Three were reportedly killed.
In Damascus, Syria, a 200-strong crowd demonstrated outside the US embassy
-- although it was abandoned in February because of the country's bloody civil war.
Update: Violence in Niger
17th September 2012. See
article from bangkokpost.com
Several Christian leaders are being held in protective custody in Niger after demonstrators angry at an anti-Islam film ransacked a major Catholic church, a local journalist said.
Hundreds of protesters stormed the cathedral in Niger's second city
of Zinder after Friday prayers, and set fire to US and British flags, a local priest and the journalist told AFP:
After Friday prayers, hundreds of protesters broke down the door of the church and totally trashed it,
before setting fire to all the documents and breaking a statue of the Virgin Mary.
The Islamic Council of Niger, the highest religious body in the mainly Muslim country, condemned the US-made film that has triggered protests across
the Arab and Muslim world, but also appealed for churches to be spared.
Update: YouTube Blocked in Pakistan
17th September 2012. See
article from indexoncensorship.org
Pakistan's Prime Minister Raja Pervaiz Ashraf has reportedly ordered the state-owned Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) to block YouTube after the video-sharing website failed to remove a controversial anti-Islam film, The Innocence of Muslims.
Blasphemous content will not be accepted at any cost, Prime Minister Ashraf is reported to have said. Earlier today officials said over 700 links to the film on YouTube were blocked following orders issued by the Supreme Court.
Update: Filmmaker in Hiding
17th September 2012. See article from
The family of a filmmaker linked to an anti-Islamic movie has left their California home in the middle of the night to join the man in hiding.
A spokesman with the LA County Sheriff's Department said that Nakoula Basseley Nakoula's relatives, each
with his or her face covered, left their Cerritos home about 3:45am on Monday.
Deputies gave them a ride and they were reunited with Nakoula, then taken to an undisclosed location.
Hammer Films launches YouTube channel
|28th August 2012
See Hammer Films channel
Hammer Films has launched its first dedicated YouTube Channel at Hammer Films channel . For the very first time, exclusive new content from current Hammer productions as
well as carefully restored classic Hammer feature films will be available to stream online.
The Hammer Films Channel will carry a range of exclusive new content, previews, commentary and behind the scenes material from upcoming new productions
such as The Quiet Ones starring Jared Harris and Sam Claflin , and The Woman In Black: Angels Of Death , the follow up to the worldwide box office hit starring Daniel Radcliffe.
In addition, the Hammer Films Channel
will stream a collection of Hammer's well-known classic feature film titles including The Quatermass Xperiment , The Man In Black and Captain Kronos Vampire Hunter , some of which have been newly restored and digitally re-mastered.
As additional titles are added to the new platform, this will be the first time fans can view other digitally re-mastered classic Hammer films online under a restoration initiative launched earlier this year by Hammer's owner Exclusive Media.
the historic library, the Hammer Films Channel will also carry classic Hammer TV series such as Hammer House Of Mystery And Suspense , as well as new on-air commentary and film introductions from official Hammer historian, Marcus Hearn and Hammer
archivist, Robert J.E. Simpson.
Best not buy smart TVs from Samsung, LG and Sony
|17th July 2012
See article from
Samsung, LG and Sony do not wish to work with the adult business, according to one provider of such entertainment.
Marc Dorcel launched the first adult smart TV app last summer with Panasonic. The company will now be working with Phillips and
Toshiba from this August.
Meanwhile Philips has recently announced the arrival of adult apps from Hustler and Private.
There is also the issue of national laws. For instance, the two apps on the Philips smart TV sets will not become
available in Germany and Turkey. But apparently, they will be accessible in the UK, opening the door for hardcore content on UK TVs.
Currently in the UK, the two major TV platforms, Virgin and Sky, only offer very softcore adult content.
signing deals with CE manufacturers, hard porn channels could legally become available in the UK, both in linear and on-demand form.
China announces censorship requirements for online video
|12th July 2012
10th July 2012. See article from
SARFT, China's media censor has announced that online video will be required to be submitted for censorship prior to being published online.
A SARFT spokesman explainedthat original drama series and films on video websites like Youku and Tudou are
mostly great, but that some need to be cut, citing violations such as repeated curse words, violence and sexuality. In the future, original productions destined for the internet will need to be approved by SARFT before they can be broadcast just like
SARFT claimed the move as a response to an outcry from internet users and industry needs.
Presumably this SARFT announcement means we can look forward to online programming quickly becoming as dull and lifeless as most television programming, which SARFT has been doing its damnedest to suck the fun out of for quite some
It is not yet clear how the measure will be implemented nor its scope, in particular whether this will apply to user generated content.
Meanwhile, news of further push for censorship
article from xbiz.com
China is launching yet another new war on porn distribution.
China Daily reported that the country's National Office Against Pornographic and Illegal Publications said that the national campaign will last from mid-July to the end of November and will target vendors selling videos, books and magazines, as well as
various forms of pornographic or vulgar online content. Also in the country's cross hairs are books that promote gang-related culture and songs that feature obscene content.
Update: User content to be pre-vetted by
12th July 2012. See article from
Video websites are being told they must pre-screen all content that is deemed inappropriate. The State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television (SARFT) revealed new
censorship rules this week in a published series of answers to reporters' questions. Site administrators will apparently be given guidance on what is okay and what isn't. It remains to be seen how SARFT will enforce the new regulations, especially when
it comes to user-generated content.
Many site owners will find it difficult to follow the new instructions since they suddenly have to find the resources to pre-screen everything that is uploaded. When it comes to doing business on the Internet in
China, however, this is nothing new.
XBox Live video marketplace to use BBFC ratings
See press release
Xbox LIVE will use the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC)'s well-known ratings for content sold via the Xbox LIVE Zune video marketplace, allowing users to make informed choices about the content that they purchase for themselves and their
David Cooke, Director of the BBFC, says We're delighted to add Microsoft's Xbox LIVE to the roster of customers using BBFC services. In the digital age the variety of content platforms available means that, more than
ever, the BBFC has a role to play as a trusted guide to content. The public, especially parents, have told us it's important for them to see classification ratings they can trust before choosing entertainment for themselves or their children and by
joining the BBFC's voluntary service Xbox LIVE is helping its users make informed and confident choices about what they watch.
Microsoft's goal has always been to provide parents and caregivers with the tools and resources
necessary in managing age-appropriate entertainment experiences on Xbox 360 for children, says Stephen McGill, Microsoft Ltd's Director of Xbox and Entertainment. Alongside use of the forthcoming PEGI ratings system for video games, deploying BBFC
classifications for film and video content on Xbox LIVE will allow parents to make more informed choices regarding what they and their families watch on our service.
The BBFC's service for streamed and downloaded content was
launched in 2008 to provide its trusted and recognised classifications, category symbols and Consumer Advice to set-top box, video-on-demand and other online content providers. The BBFC worked closely with the home entertainment industry to develop a
voluntary regulatory service that would bring the benefits of the DVD classification system to content delivered online. When the public was surveyed about the new service, 82% of parents said that they preferred to download films that were classified
with the trusted BBFC symbols and content advice. Government ministers and other Parliamentarians are on the record as supporters of the BBFC's work in this area.
Microsoft Ltd joins other key affiliates to the BBFC service
including Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment Europe, Warner Bros., Paramount, 20th Century Fox, Universal, BT Vision, Tesco/Blinkbox, TalkTalk, Picturebox and Netflix, bringing the total number of members to 38.
YouTube censorship of Kate Upton video causes a little excitement
article from foxnews.com
See video from youtube.com
The modern implementation of commercial censorship is that internet throughput is way too massive for any meaningful or well meaning attempt as decision making. Instead the first level of censorship is implemented as cheaply as possible presumably
with absolutely minimal time available to look into each report.
Most of the duff decisions are presumably uncontested as they generally inconvenience people without the necessary clout or motivation to do anything about it. However, just
occasionally, crap decisions get noticed. The internet company involved get real people involved and then apologise profusely about the crap decisions whilst trying to spin that these don't happen very often.
The latest example is a
one-minute clip of model and cover girl, Kate Upton, gyrating and bouncing in an itty bitty bikini, demonstrating how to do the Cat Daddy dance while on a magazine shoot.
The video was yanked by YouTube for violating its nudity policy,
despite the fact she was not naked.
The ban got publicised and YouTube had an inevitable rethink. The video was reinstated, but this time with an age restriction.
A Google rep explained to FOX411's Pop Tarts column:
With the massive volume of videos on our site, sometimes we make the wrong call. When it's brought to our attention that a video has been removed mistakenly, we act quickly to reinstate it.
Apparently the age
restriction was a mistake as well, because that too soon got lifted.
Can the internet be civilised?
See article from
When a south London teenager uploaded a series of amateur rap videos to YouTube, he had no reason to believe they would make legal history.
But the videos, a vivid account of life on the road in Peckham for a young black
male, quickly gained millions of views. In one, 18-year-old Matt raps about stabbing, saying: You're always chatting on, you should feel a piece of the knife, stabbing in your head, stabbing in your chest.
In another video,
teenagers make gestures and call out gang names. It was not long before the authorities took notice: last year Matt became the first person in England and Wales to be banned by law from producing music or videos that encourage violence.
Southwark council, which took out the injunction against Matt, believes YouTube has become the new playground for gang members. By all means we want people to use social media, but we do not want you to use it in ways that
will incite violence, said Jonathan Toy, Southwark council's head of community safety. This remains a big issue for us and without some form of censorship purely focusing on [violent videos], I'm not sure how we can address it.
the full article
Dance Again by Jennifer Lopez
See article from
See video from
US nutters from the Culture and Media institute are whingeing at Jennifer Lopez's new video for Dance Again.
In a recent interview with Radar, Dan Gainor for the institute spouted:
skanky new video shows how desperate she is to retain her fame despite her fading relevance.
Gainor said the big issue with the video is the fact that it premiered during a show watched by children:
Even the supposedly family-friendly TV shows like American Idol are never safe in the hands of Hollywood. Such sexualized videos aren't appropriate for any children to watch, including Lopez's own twins.
The video, which debuted on
American Idol last week has racked up nearly 10 million views on YouTube. It has Lopez dancing around and running her hands over herself and other dancers. Lopez's choreographer and boyfriend Casper Smart figures prominently in the video. Pitbull is
also featured on Dance Again. It's Lopez's second recent collaboration with the Cuban rapper.
YouTube provide a cuts list required for Madonna's new music video, Girl Gone Wild
video from youtube.com
Madonna's new video for Girl Gone Wild has been restricted to adults by YouTube. It is supposedly too raunchy for general viewing, with scenes including partial nudity and a close-up of a man's PVC-clad crotch.
YouTube censors have told
Madonna's management that if they want it to be available for viewing by all, they must edit out shots of bare bottoms, a man rubbing his crotch and an implied masturbation scene where a man gyrates before a mirror.
A rep for YouTube told the New
YouTube has decided the video is too raunchy and should only be viewed by those 18 or over, and actually, the video is hard to find on the site. YouTube has sent Madonna's team a list of shots that should be
cut to make it appropriate for everyone.
While we don't comment on individual videos, we review all videos flagged by our users against our community guidelines. In some cases we age-restrict flagged material that, while not in
violation of those guidelines, contains images that may be unsuitable for younger users.
Madonna's team are working on an edited version of the video for YouTube.
Ofcom plugging away at the notion that people would like to see TV style censorship applied to the internet
article from ipsos-mori.com
Protecting Audiences report [pdf] from stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk
Regulation is dead: long live the independent TV viewer? from
Ofcom commissioned Ipsos MORI to survey audiences to understand attitudes towards content regulation; and how far, and in what ways, the public expects it should be protected in a world where content can be accessed in such a broad range of ways.
The report Protecting audiences in a converged world is based on findings from seven pairs of workshops conducted across the UK, each of which had around 20 participants. Fieldwork took place in June and July 2011.
Key findings include:
Protecting minors, and protection from harm, were considered to be the most important areas for future regulation.
Offence is very important to some, but not at all important to others.
Impartiality, privacy and fairness were usually considered to be relatively less important. But a wide range of views were expressed, depending on whether participants considered the areas to be an important principle to uphold or
Knowledge of current content regulation is high for broadcast services, but lower for other services like catch up and VoD (video on-demand).
Viewers have high expectations of
content regulation on broadcast television, and associated VoD and catch-up services.
Other online audio-visual content is seen to be different from broadcasting content and people have generally lower expectations about
regulation in this area.
Converged TVs and devices, which incorporate broadcast, VoD and open internet services, are considered to be closer to a TV-like experience -- and have a higher expectation of regulation -- than the
open internet. It is particularly important to protect vulnerable people in this environment.
Technology use and social attitudes were found to be the most influential factors in influencing people's views on the future of